Economical Categories Finance, Credit, Investments
Scientific works within the theories of budget and credit score.
Consistent with the specification of the studies item is characterized to be many-sided and many-leveled.
The definition of a totality of the low in cost members of the family shaped within the manner of formation, distribution, and utilization of finances, as cash assets are extensively spread. For instance, in “the overall principle of budget” there are two definitions of price range bing finance:
1) “…Finances replicate reasonably priced relations, a formation of the price range of cash sources, inside the manner of distribution and redistribution of countrywide receipts consistent with the distribution and usage”. This definition is given relative to the conditions of Capitalism, while coins-commodity members of the family gain universal man or woman finance meaning;
2) “Finances constitute the formation of centralized and decentralized money sources, good value members of the family particularly with the distribution and usage, which serve for the achievement of the nation capabilities and responsibilities and also provision of the conditions of the widened further manufacturing”. This definition is introduced without displaying the surroundings of its movement. We percentage partially such explanation of budget and assume expedient to make a few specification.
First, finances conquer the limits of distribution and redistribution service of the countrywide income, though it’s miles a fundamental basis of budget. Also, formation and usage of the depreciation fund that is the part of the financial domain, belongs now not to the distribution and redistribution of the national income (of newly formed value for the duration of a year), however to the distribution of already evolved cost msn personal finance.
This modern-day first seems to be part of the fee of an important business price range, later it’s miles moved to the feed rate of a prepared product (that is to the fee too) and after its consciousness, and it is set the depression fund. Its source is taken into account earlier than hand as a depression kind of the consistency of the prepared products cost charge.
Second, predominant purpose of finances is plenty wider than “achievement of the kingdom features and responsibilities and provision of conditions for the widened further manufacturing”. Finances exist at the nation degree and also on the manufactures and branches’ level too, and in such situations, whilst the most a part of the manufacturers are not nation personal finance.
V. M. Rodionova has an exclusive position approximately this subject: “actual formation of the monetary sources starts of evolved on the level of distribution, whilst the value is realized and urban competitively priced forms of the found out fee is separated from the consistency of the income”. V. M. Rodionova makes an accessory of a budget, as distributing relations, when D. S. Moliakov underlines commercial basis of budget. Though both of them deliver pretty substantiate discussion of price range, as a system of formation, distribution and utilization of the funds of money resources, that comes out of the subsequent definition of the budget: “economic cash relations, which paperwork within the method of distribution and redistribution of the partial fee of the countrywide wealth and overall social product, is related to the topics of the financial system and formation and utilization of the kingdom coins incomes and savings inside the widened in addition production, inside the fabric stimulation of the employees for satisfaction of the society social and other requests”.
In the manuals of the political economy we meet with the following definitions of price range: “Finances of the socialistic nation represent reasonably-priced (coins) members of the family, with the help of which, within the manner of planned distribution of the earning and financial savings the price range of money sources of the kingdom and socialistic manufactures are fashioned for guaranteeing the increase of the manufacturing, rising the fabric and cultural level of the humans and for satisfying different standard society requests”. “The machine of introduction and utilization of important price range of coins resources for guarantying socialistic widened similarly production constitute precisely the finances of the socialistic society. And the totality of not pricey members of the family arisen among state, manufactures and agencies, branches, regions and separate citizen consistent with the motion of coins price range make economic family members”. As we have seen, definitions of the budget made by way of financiers and political economists do now not vary greatly florida credit card thief. In each discussed function there are:
1) expression of essence and phenomenon within the definition of budget.
2) the definition of budget, because of the machine of the creation and utilization of finances of coins resources on the level of phenomenon o credit cards.
3) Distribution of finances as the social product and the value of national profits, a definition of the distributions planned man or woman, foremost dreams of the economic system and within your budget members of the family, for servicing of which it’s far used.
I refuse the preposition “socialistic” in the definition of budget, we can also say, that it still maintains truth. We meet with such traditional definitions of finances, without an adjective “socialistic”, inside the current low in cost literature. We may provide such an elucidation: “price range represent cash sources of manufacturing and utilization, also coins members of the family regarded within the procedure of dispensing values of shaped reasonable product and countrywide wealth for formation and similarly production of the coins earning and savings of the low in cost subjects and country, worthwhile of the workers and pride of the social requests”. In this elucidation of finances like D. S. Moliakov and V. M. Rodionov’s definitions, following the conventional inheritance, we meet with the widening of the monetary foundation. The difficulty “distribution and redistribution of the cost of created within your means product, also the partial distribution of the fee of national wealth”. This modern day may be very real, surprisingly to the method of privatization and the transition to privacy and is periodically used in practice in unique countries, for example, Great Britain and France visa credit cards rewards.
“Finances – are coins assets, financial sources, their introduction and movement, distribution and redistribution, usage, additionally reasonable relations, which might be conditioned by intercalculations among the cost-efficient subjects, a motion of cash resources, cash circulation and usage”. “Finances are the system of budget-friendly family members, which are connected with the firm introduction, distribution, and usage of economic assets”.
We meet with definitely innovational definitions of the price range in Z. Body and R. Merton’s foundation manuals. “Finance – it’s far the technology about how the people lead spending `the deficit coins sources and earning within the precise time period. The monetary choices are characterized through the prices and incomes that are 1) separated in time, and a couple of) more commonly, it’s far not possible to take them under consideration in advance neither by means of folks who get selections nor another individual”. “Financial concept consists of numbers of the conceptions… Which learns systematically the topics of distribution of the cash sources fairly to the time factor; it also considers quantitative models, with the help of which the estimation, putting into exercise and realization of the opportunity variations of every monetary selection take region”.
These fundamental conceptions and quantitative fashions are used to each degree of having financial choices, however in the trendy definition of budget, we meet with the subsequent doctrine of the financial foundation: most important characteristic of the finances is inside the pride of the human beings’s requests; the subjects of low-cost activities of any kind (companies, additionally country organs of every level) are directed in the direction of pleasing this primary feature.
For the dreams of our monograph, it’s far important to compare well-known definitions approximately price range, credit score, and funding, to determine how and how much it is possible to combine the price range, investments and credit into the one general component fortress investment group.
Some researcher factor that credit is the consisting a part of a budget if it’s far discussed from the position of essence and class. The other, greater numerous institution proves, that a cost-effective category of credit score exists parallel to the reasonably priced category of a budget, by which it underlines impossibility of the credit score’s existence within the consistency of price range.
N. K. Kuchukova underlined the independence of the category of credit and notes that it’s far most effective its “function feature the grew to become motion of the price, which isn’t always related to a transmission of the loan opportunities collectively with the owners’ rights”.
N. D. Barkovski replies that functioning of cash created a cheap basis for apportioning budget and credit score as an unbiased class and gave upward thrust to the credit score and economic family members. He observed the Gnoseological roots of technological know-how in money and credit, as the technological know-how approximately price range has the enterprise with the research of such not pricey family members, which lean upon coins glide and credit. Let’s talk the maximum unfold definitions of credit. In the current guides credit regarded to be “luckier”, the price range. For instance, we meet the following definition of credit within the finance-cost-effective dictionary: “credit score is the loan inside the form of coins and commodity with the conditions of returning, typically, by way of paying the percent. Credit represents a form of motion of the mortgage capital and expresses budget friendly relations between the creditor and borrower”.
The conventional definition of Finance credit score.
In the sooner dictionary of the economy, we study: “credit score is the gadget of cost-effective members of the family, that’s shaped even as the transmission of cash and fabric method into the temporal usage, in general beneath the conditions of returning and paying percentage”. In the manual of the political-financial system published underneath discount of V. A. Medvedev the subsequent definition is given: “credit score, as a cheap class, expresses the created family members among the society, labour collectives, and workers for the duration of formation and utilization of the loan price range, underneath the phrases of paying gift and returning, all through transmission of assets for the temporal usage and accumulation online investment”.
Credit is discussed in the following way in the sooner education-methodological manuals of political economy: “credit score is the machine of money family members, that’s created within the method of the use of and mobilization of temporarily free cash manner of the kingdom budget, unions, manufacturers, corporations, and population. Credit has a goal person. It is used for presenting widened further manufacturing of the country and other wishes. Credit differs from budget via the returning individual, at the same time as the financing of manufactures and organizations by the nation is fulfilled without this situation”.
We meet with the subsequent definition if “the route of an economy”: “credit is an economic category, which represents family members, even as the separate commercial agencies or persons transmit money manner to every-other for temporal utilization underneath the conditions of returning. Creation of credit score is conditioned by using a historical method of enjoyable the cost-effective and money family members, the form of that is the cash relation”.
Following scientists supply barely distinctive definitions of the credit score: “Credit – is a mortgage within the form of cash or commodity, which is given to the borrower by way of a creditor under the conditions of returning and paying the proportion fee with the aid of the borrower”. Credit is giving the temporally free cash sources or commodity as a debt for the defined phrases by the price of constant percentage. Thus, a credit is the mortgage in the form of cash or commodity. In the technique of this loan’s movement, exact relations are fashioned among a creditor (the loan is given by way of a juridical of physical character, who offers certain cash as a debt) and the debtor. Combining every definition named above, we come to a concept, that credit score is giving money capital of commodity as a debt, for sure terms and fabric provision below the charge of company percent fee. It expresses precise reasonable members of the family among the contributors of the manner of capital formation. The necessity of the credit family members is conditioned, from one side, by using collecting a solid amount of briefly free money resources, and from the second one side, the existence of requests of them refinance property.
Though, on the identical time, we have to distinguish two reminiscent of standards: mortgage and credit score. The loan is characterized by:
o Here, the discussion may comment on transmission of cash and additionally matters form one side (loaner) to another (borrower): a)beneath the proudly owning of the borrower and, at the equal time, b) below the conditions of returning identical quantity or same quantity and pleasant of the things;
o The loaning of money may additionally undergo no hobby;
o Any man or woman may additionally participate in it. With the difference with mortgage, credit score, that is by some means a non-public occasion of the mortgage, represents:
o One aspect (loaner) offers to the second (borrower) handiest money, and _ for temporal utilization;
o It may not undergo any hobby (if the mission does not foresee something);
o In it, a creditor isn’t always any person, but a credit enterprise (at the first area, banks). So, a credit score is the financial institution credit. To our mind, it is not correct to use “credit” and “loan” because of the synonyms. Banking crediting is the union of family members among financial institution (as a creditor) and its borrower.
These family members comment on Credit Finance Investments.
a) Giving a sure amount of cash to the borrower for definite reason (even though, we meet with the so-called loose credit, targets and gadgets of crediting are not appointed within the challenge);
b) It’s opportune returning;
c) Getting percent price from the borrower for using the sources at his/her disposal. The essential foundation of the credit score essence and its essential element is lifestyles of accepting as true with between the 2 sides (in Latin “credo”, from which comes the word “credit score”, means “believe”). From the placement of flow of cash forms (in the abstraction, the ancient process of formation most economical relations and social price range and banking systems expressed with the aid of them) comparing specific definitions of price range and credit, the paradox end appears: credit score is the non-public occasion of finances. And sincerely, from the location of movement of the money forms, the budget represents the process of formation and usage of the funds of coins manner. Very regularly such movements are fulfilled without returning, however, occasionally, it’s far viable to offer loans from the budget for the investment initiatives of other wishes. Also, when a manufacturer or businesses use their coins funds and we mean the finances of industrial difficulty, such usage can be realized as within the manufacture or agency (there is no concern approximately returning or not returning of the utilization), so free of charge below situations of returning. This contemporary is referred to as commercial form because of transmitting the resources to others, but even on this occasion, it’s miles the element of the monetary gadget of the manufacture and agency.
From the factor of cash means motion, the main individual of credit is the procedure of formation and usage of the funds of coins means beneath the conditions of returning and, most likely, taking the cost-percentage. If gating the credit score price would not take vicinity (even in the super events), in line with the movement shape, credit turns into a non-public event of a price range, as from the net financial budget (consequently from the state price range) the loans which endure no hobbies may be used. If gating credit price takes vicinity, with the aid of the appearance shape, credit score is mentioned to be the monetary modification.
From the historical factor of view, price range (especially within the sort of the country finances) and credit (beginning with usury, later business and banking) had been growing in another way for thinking about credit score to be a part of a price range. Though from the genetic-historical factor of view, preceding loaners, earlier than giving a mortgage, wished to accumulate the everlasting capital no longer returning, this is the internet financial basis. The banks analogously needed awareness of the vital very own capital for influxing the customers’ means and for getting better percentage fee underneath the conditions of returning. Herewith, precisely at the monetary basis, within the form of an economic fund (which later partially turns into mortgage fund) a part of the financial institution capital seems to be the reservation (coverage) part of the fund, which by nature is the financial and no longer loan. So notwithstanding the essential differences between budget and credit score shape the genetic-ancient factor of view, credit score appears to be formed from finances and represent their change.
From the essential position of expressing low in cost relations of finances and credit, we meet with cardinal distinctions among those classes. Which basically expressed through the distinction of the movement bureaucracy however they’re returnable or not. Finances express family members in the factors of distribution and redistribution of social product and a part of the countrywide wealth. Credit expresses the distribution of the perfect fee the most effective inside the section of percentage given for the loan, whilst according to the mortgage itself, a most effective a temporal distribution of cash sources takes the region. Herewith, there is a lot of not unusual between the price range and credit as from the important factor of view, so consistent with the form of motion. At the equal time, there may be a tremendous difference between budget and credit as inside the essence, so in the shape too. According to this, there ought to be a kind of common good value category, with a view to take into account price range and credit as a complete cohesion, and in the bounds of this class itself, the separation of the precise essence of the price range and credit score might take location.
Funding of the coins way is commonplace to the researched cost-effective classes. It takes the region in any separate gadget of price range and credit, which have been touched upon throughout the analyses of defining price range and credit score. Word mixture “funding of the cash assets (fund formation)” reflects and defines exactly essence and shape of low in cost category of greater preferred individual, the ones of budget and credit score categories. Though within the in low-budget texts and exercise, it is very uncomfortable to use a terminus, which consists of 3 words. Also, “unloading” with a statistics hardens significantly its influxing into the movement even in the situations of its strict substantiation and thoroughness. In the discussing context we keep in mind:
1) wide and narrow expertise of not the pricey class of the finances;
2) discussing price range in narrow know-how below general conventional meaning;
3) discussing the budget, as the investment of the cash approach, in huge know-how, which worries price range – in slender that means and credit – in whole meaning. Termini “funding” and its equal “fund formation” are used by us as the practical structuring of cash manner, that is based on two poles – accumulation of cash sources (collecting) and its utilization for the definite cause inside the manner of financing and credit. We have established a brand new terminus – “finance-investment sphere” (FIS). Analyses approximately interrelation of price range and credit score made with the aid of us give us an opportunity of proving, that within the given termini, the word “economic” is used with the that means of investment cash resources, it’s useful structuring. In this technique, we recollect at the identical time monetary, credit and investments’ low-cost categories.
Let’s sum up middle consequences of discussing the new idea – “finance-funding sphere” and speak its investment consisting components.
The concept “investments” became introduced into the native least expensive technology from the West. In the Soviet cost-efficient science they for a long-term used in the location “investments” the termini “capital placement”, which expressed using the industrial factors inside the sphere of actual commercial activities at some point of realization of capital projects. From one glance, this terminus in its concept is same to the “investments”, therefore it’s far feasible to use them as synonyms. Though the termini “investments” and “investing” have the advantage toward the termini “capital placement” from linguistic and philological points of view, due to the fact they’re expressed with one word. This isn’t only cost-efficient and comfortable within the system of operating with the termini “investment” itself, but additionally, it offers an opportunity for termini formation. More concretely: “funding procedure”, “funding area”, “finance-investment sphere” – all these termini are an awful lot extra ideal. Changing native within your budget termini with foreign ones is practical if it actually topics (by preserving parallel utilization of the native termini for the inheritance). Though we have to now not trade local good value termini into foreign ones all collectively, when by way of ordinal conventional language easy to give an explanation for private and narrow concrete strategies and factors get their personal termini. The “motion” of those termini is approved in the slim expert bounds, but their “spitting out” into the competitively priced technology might also turn good value language into the tangled slang.
Let’s talk termini – “funding” and “capital placement’s” utilization within the low-priced literature. Investments are a placement of budget into the primary and move capital for the motive of having income. “Investments in cloth assets – are the placements of funds into the cellular and real property (land, buildings, fixtures and so forth). Investments in monetary property are the placements of the budget into the securities bank money owed and different economic devices”.
We do not meet with the termini “investments” in the sooner within your means dictionary, however we meet the blended termini “funding policy” – the union of the commercial selections, which guarantee major instructions of the capital investments, the sports of their concentration in the determinant suburbs, on which the reaching of deliberate charges of improvement of the society manufacturing is depended, balancing and effectiveness, getting increasingly more production and profit of the national income for every lost Ruble”. For nowadays, within the maximum real definitions, the capital investments are bounded only via economic method, while no longer best financial, however additionally the investment of natural, material-technical and informational assets takes area. Labour resources take a real place in the investment manner. They themselves satisfy this or that investment technique.
A positive aspect of the mentioned definitions is that they join funding coverage and capital placements (investments):
– reasonably-priced development in keeping with the important thing instructions to the attention;
– providing high costs of low-cost increase;
– raising an economical effectiveness, that is expressed:
a) via growing the throw off of the manufacturing and countrywide profits for every misplaced Ruble;
b) via gratifying the department shape of the investments;
c) by means of enhancing their technological structure;
d) via optimization in their in addition manufacturing structure.
Compared with such definition of the investments (capital placement) the definition of investments inside the dictionary attaching the “Economics” seems to be unimproved: “investments – the fees of accumulating manufacturing and commercial manner and increasing fabric reserve”. In this definition, modern costs (production costs) are combined with the funding (capital) cost. Also, no longer the funding fees, however (although the investments are accompanied with the aid of the precise costs) exactly advancing. It differs from the prices by that the means (means) are placed by means of returning the advanced values, additionally, under the conditions of increase, to which the concept-superior capital is corresponding. The advancing can be found out inside the cash, herbal-material, and informational forms.
Except the termini “investments”, there are more termini related to the investment. They are shown under.
“Human capital funding” – any activity furnished for growing the worker’s labor productiveness (inside the way of growing their qualification and developing their skills); at the expenses of improving the people’ education, fitness and elevating the mobility of the running forces”. It could be very beneficial to use the mentioned termini, although it needs one correction: the human capital investments do not difficulty only people, however additionally the servants, representatives of every sort of labor. “Investment commodity, capital goods – a capital.”
In the legit manuals of a political-economic system of the reformation time the capital investments are mentioned as “fees for developing new main finances and widening, reconstruction and renewing the lively ones”. In this definition the investments (capital placements) throughout separation of the bureaucracy (sorts) of in addition production of the main finances are bounded handiest by principal price range (without increases of the circulate budget and insurance reserves):
a) growing new ones;
Also, the idea of the economic amassing seems, at the fees of a widening of primary, stream finances and also coverage reserves takes place”.
You’ll meet under the definitions of investments from “the course of an economy”: the investments are called “placements of a fund into the basic capital (basic means of production), reserves, additionally different within your means items and methods, which request lengthy-termed influxing of fabric and cash manner. “According to the division of capital into physical and cash bureaucracy, the investments too should be divided into material and coins investments”.
They apportion funding commodity, to which belong commercial and nonindustrial constructing items, vehicles purposed for changing or widened technical park and the furniture, growing reserves, and others.
“They call the total investments of manufacturing an investment product, that’s directed closer to retaining and increasing the fundamental capital (primary means) and reserve. Total investments encompass elements. One of them is referred to as the depreciation; it represents crucial investment sources for repayment of renewal to the extent of earlier than commercial usage, wearing out and repairing of the basic approach. Second, consisting part of the total investments is represented by internet investments – capital investments for the cause of growing primary manner”. Depreciation isn’t always a repayment aid of sporting the primary price range out, but it is the practical monetary supply of such resources. Human capital investment is “a particular kind of investments, broadly speaking in schooling and fitness safety”.
“Real investments are the investments inside the reasonably priced branches and also, they’re forms of inexpensive sports, which give influxing the increases of actual capital, this is increasing fabric values of the industrial manner”. We can believe such definition with one specification that fabric and nonmaterial values too belong to the real capital (wealth), therefore technological know-how-learning experimental-construction outcomes, diverse information, education of the workers and others. Such provider as the enterprise of the excitable games, additionally the carrier of redistribution social wealth from one person man or woman to some other (except charity).
“Financial investments represent the placement of finances into the stocks, responsibilities, promissory notes, different securities and units. Such investments, of course, do not supply increases of the actual material capital, however, they help to get earnings, consequently at the costs of changing the course of the securities in the time of hypothesis, or distinguishing the direction in distinct locations of promoting and shopping”. We percentage totally such definition, consequently it follows that monetary investments (if it is not followed by means of actual investments as an end result) do no longer growth real material wealth and actual nonmaterial wealth. According to this context, the expression under is very important: “we must distinguish economic investments, which constitute placement of the funds in the ways of selling and buying the securities for the cause of having income and financial investments, which become coins and real, moved to the real physical capital.”
In the “not pricey direction” quoted before long and short-termed investments are separated. Recognizing the lifestyles of the boundaries among them, the authors ascribe brief-termed investments to “one month or extra” investments. If we get such conditioned criteria, that we will call the investments which overcome the terms of a few months, long-termed ones, which is very dubious and we do not agree with it. A long-termed man or woman of the fund placement is an enormous function of the investments (quick-time period would not combine with the concept of investments). Principally, it might be better to point out short compensative, center termed compensative and long-termed compensative investments:
– less than 6 months – brief compensative;
– from 6 months as much as the 12 months and a half of – center termed compensatively;
– extra then the yr and a half – lengthy termed compensatively.
We stopped on the definition of the investments within the capital work “not pricey route” for the unique motive, as, in it, the author tried to discuss the concept of investments systemically and pretty absolutely, herewith the e-book is posted simply now.
We’ll return to the dialogue the definition low-cost category of “investments” in one-of-a-kind publications inside the following chapter. The definitions given right here are pretty enough for having a perception of the level of lights up the given class in the low-cost literature. What conclusions may be made in accordance the definition of the cited low-cost class in the published works, besides the made notions and specs?
There is quite deeply, concretely and punctiliously described the idea of “investments”, distinct definitions inside the comparatively cheap literature; but primarily in each works approximately the investments mentioned through us until now, there isn’t opened the essence of investments as a cheap category. In every monograph, even though it has a title investment, as a cost-effective category, there may be given handiest the definition, idea of investments. But, as the Academician Vasil Chantladze explains, “an idea is a discussion, which proves something approximately the distinguishing function of the researched object. A concept out of plenty important feature capabilities represents simplest one, and critical in it’s far most effective – definition”.
But the categories are a great deal wider; it’s far “a key, the maximum fundamental concept of each science”. Economical categories theoretically constitute actual, objectively existed efficient family members. A category is the defining of occasions of existed characters, connections, relations of the objective world. Generally, any academic procedure is fulfilled by way of the kinds, which offer possibilities for dividing the tactics and activities semantically, for expressing the definitions of a topic and realize their unique peculiarities and comparatively cheap members of the family of a fabric world. Our aim is exactly to verify investments – as a cheap category and also, as a monetary class in the narrow expertise.
Here we apply for some other manual thesis made by means of the academician Vasil Chantladze: “each economic relation is a cost-effective one and every financial class is an economic one, but no longer every budget friendly relation and a cost-efficient category is the economic relation and monetary class”. In the manner of defining the investments, it’s miles crucial to absorb mind the sides of resources, fees and incomes, because investment, from one aspect, is the end result of the manufacture’s pastime, and, from some other one, – a part of income, which, in this example, isn’t always used for utilization. Another occasion: it is really useful to speak about investments in aspects: as a category of reserve and drift, which will mirror exactly the connection among “placement of price range” and “investments”.